The Balance between HIV/AIDS Treatment and Intellectual Property Rights

In the aftermath of the World Trade Organization’s Trade-Related Intellectual Property—TRIPS—Agreement (1995) and the World Health Organization’s global action plan on public health, innovation and intellectual property (2008), the balance between intellectual property rights and the right to treatment remains a hot topic, especially in relation to the AIDS pandemic. The drugs required to treat AIDS often take many years and millions of dollars to develop but are often needed most in countries with the least ability to pay. This topic is further complicated by the generics market in fast-growing economies such as India and Brazil, two of the world’s top producers of generic drugs. In the face of a pandemic is it permissible to deny treatment in the name of intellectual property? And, if intellectual property rights must be upheld, how can this be done while maintaining growth in the markets that rely on cheaper alternatives and without making healthcare unattainable?

Brazil presents an interesting case because of its involvement in the production of generic drugs, its status as a G-20 nation with a fast-growing economy, and its commitment to provide free treatment to all citizens infected with HIV/AIDS.  Brazil is one of the world’s most populous countries and has one of the highest HIV/AIDS rates of any G-20 nation, behind South Africa and Russia.1 Therefore, Brazil’s commitment to free treatment for HIV/AIDS presents both an economic and a trade issue due to its scale, the high cost per capita of AIDS treatment, and Brazil’s manufacturing capabilities. These factors have led Brazil to put pressure on the TRIPS agreement and US pharmaceutical companies in the name of treating its citizens.  Its Health Ministry has even threatened to produce bio-equivalent drugs that Brazil had back-engineered if the companies did not give them the discounts they demanded. In one case this forced US manufacturer Abbott Laboratories to lower its price for an antiretroviral called Kaletra, a part of the AIDS treatment cocktail, by nearly half.2 While the bullying of pharmaceutical companies in developed nations may not be the best way to obtain the drugs necessary to treat their people, the fact remains that the TRIPS agreement has left middle-income countries with some industrial capability in healthcare limbo.  They are neither exempt from international patent laws—as India and China were until 2005 to allow for economic growth—nor do they have the industry or resources to manufacture or purchase all of the patented drugs they need to treat their people.3

In 2007 the generics sector of the Brazilian pharmaceutical market occupied 11.6% of the total market, and the Health Ministry expressed hopes that this would grow to 20% by 2011, especially in the production of antiretrovirals.4 The national AIDS program currently spends 80-85% of its budget importing these drugs, even though Brazil is capable of manufacturing about half of the drugs it needs.5 The generics industry claims itself to be an equal enemy of bio-equivalent or “similar” drugs along with patent holders.6 However, the financial strain of treating the population is obvious, leading us to question the balance between the economics of cutting edge pharmaceutical research and development and the necessity of treating a pandemic.

The TRIPS Agreement, in an effort to address the WHO-declared pandemics of AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria, allows countries to obtain compulsory licenses for patented drugs to produce them more cheaply in times of national emergency.  However, most developing nations do not have the infrastructure to produce such drugs or the funds to buy them from developed nations.  This should be the niche for generics manufactured in places like Brazil and India, as the agreement states that compulsory licenses need only be manufactured “primarily” for local use.7 Therefore, it is somewhat legal to produce AIDS drugs without authorization of the patent holder in times of crisis.  However, the wording is vague enough to leave it open to interpretation on a case-by-case basis.

In light of the presumption that people have the right to treatment for HIV/AIDS and that manufacturing under compulsory licenses is legal despite negative ramifications for those who pay for research and development, what is the best way to profit from the situation?  If growing nations with the infrastructure in place to manufacture generics were allowed to produce and export the drugs that less developed nations need, this would help both the nations in need of healthcare and the economies of the producing nations.  However, at what point does the capability to produce such drugs at lower than the cost of research and development cause a backlash in new inventions?  Brazil has already cited a decline in the research sector of its pharmaceutical industry because it is primarily a copycat nation in terms of production.  Another concern in relation to a growing unauthorized generic market is that they will leak into nations that don’t qualify for compulsory licensing, leaving researchers high and dry.  This fear has even led to seizures of generic drugs en route to developing nations when they had to pass through developed ones to get there.8

The message remains: proceed with caution.  Although the TRIPS Agreement has striven to protect both intellectual property rights and global health needs, more can still be done within its scope to produce affordable pharmaceutical equivalents for the world’s developing nations. However, it is important that this production does not impede further research and development by taking too much away from the original patent holders.  While it is unethical to refuse people AIDS treatment, there is a fine line between treating a pandemic and disregarding patents for discoveries that often take years to develop. With proper regulation, middle-income nations can fill the niche of cheap generic production while developed nations continue to honor patents through parallel trading.  This should allow for a balance between economic growth and AIDS treatment.

 

 

References

1 CIA. 2009. South America :: Brazil. The World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/br.html (accessed September 30, 2009).

2 “Generic Drugs in Brazil Are a Hard Pill for Big Pharma to Swallow,” Universia-Knowledge @Wharton (Jan 16, 2006), http://www.wharton.universia.net/index.cfm?fa=viewArticle&id=1086&language=english (accessed September 30, 2009).

3 Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, “Brazil Authorizes Importation of Generic AIDS Drugs; Move Could Reignite WTO Debate,” The Body (September 5, 2003), Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation • International News, http://www.thebody.com/content/policy/art11300.html (accessed September 30, 2009).

4 “Generic Drugs in Brazil Are a Hard Pill for Big Pharma to Swallow,” Universia-Knowledge @Wharton (Jan 16, 2006), http://www.wharton.universia.net/index.cfm?fa=viewArticle&id=1086&language=english (accessed September 30, 2009).

5 Ricardo Vicente,“Opportunities and Challenges for Bioequivalent Generic Drugs in Brazil,” Episcom Business Intelligence Ltd (April 2007), in Research and Markets, http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reportinfo.asp?report_id=455657 (accessed September 30, 2009)

6 “Generic Drugs in Brazil Are a Hard Pill for Big Pharma to Swallow,” Universia-Knowledge @Wharton (Jan 16, 2006), http://www.wharton.universia.net/index.cfm?fa=viewArticle&id=1086&language=english (accessed September 30, 2009).

7 WTO TRIPS Agreement, Article 31, Other Use Without Authorization of the Right Holder, (Doha 2001) http://www.wto.org/english/docs_e/legal_e/27-trips_04c_e.htm (accessed September 30, 2009).

8 FDA News,“Seizures of Generic Drugs Protested by Health Groups,” Generic Line, Vol. 26, No. 6, (March 18, 2009), in LexisNexis, http://www.lexisnexis.com.proxy.library.cornell.edu/us/lnacademic/results/docview/docview.do?docLinkInd=true&risb=21_T7473671020&format=GNBFI&sort=BOOLEAN&startDocNo=1&resultsUrlKey=29_T7473671023&cisb=22_T7473671022&treeMax=true&treeWidth=0&csi=304272&docNo=2 (accessed September 30, 2009).

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    Good morning everyone, my name is Miss Bernille from brazil, i have been suffering from Hiv/Aids for over 4years now, and suddenly, i have spent all my money all to make sure i get healthy all day, but happily, last month january 12th 2013, i came in contact with a traditional doctor also known as a chief priest on a newspaper who is called Dr DR.ABEGBE who has help much people to cure their aids disease, firstly i taught it was a joke until i contacted him ” ‘DR.ABEGBESPELLHOME@GMAIL.COM ‘ ” and he said that if i am ready for this work, i told him yes, and he collected my details and told me that after he has finished consulting his oracle he will run back to me on when to go for a medical check up, i was unhealthyling surprise. And truly last week monday dr olorun called me to quickly go for a medical checkup, which i did, only to find out that i was not with any HiV disease anymore, my friends and families who left me before run back to me.
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    What a great man, a great thanks to DR.ABEGBE the man that bring me out of this sorrow this is the man that can as well help the world, on this diseases I can remember 5 year ago when I was searching for cure, and how I have spent much money and I finally lost hope due to my conduction I have to put my hope on god, lucky to me last week here I was on the internet, check on how many year I can spent on earth them I see a comment about this great man DR.ABEGBE what a lucky day for me and today am giving my testimony about him I have never believe there is cure at all, but this man just want me to give him a try, if he cannot do it I will know his is not DR.ABEGBE that he have been doing this cure for more than many year now I put my hope on him and also my dear god but today am very happy to give this story to you all, it all happen when I was 23 year well because of this disease I can get married and very happy today am now negative I can get married now to my follow people that is on my shoes this the good way to say bye to this diseases HIV/AIDS contact this man now DR.ABEGBESPELLHOME@HOTMAIL.COM DR.ABEGBESPELLHOME@GMAIL.COM +2348113017989

  • Harry Lilly

    Hello let me quick drop this testimony that I witness on my own this man is real and is genuine and it can as well help you as he did to me last month here I found out that am affected but it was him that help me I was detected HIV positive but this man make me negative, I will to do anything for this man that save my life I was hopeless when I see my result and I was very sad to see am positive and him that cure HIV didn’t let me down but he did according to his promise and make me great and strong in him am writing this to the world to see that he is really great man and it can also help you can call him DR.ABEGBE this is his name and you can email he on any of this email DR.ABEGBESPELLHOME@GMAIL.COM OR DR.ABEGBESPELLHOME@HOTMAIL.COM and this man have rule and regulation if you can go according to his rule you will be happy like me as I am now this man cure take 45mins with 100% assurance you can call him for help now +2348113017989

  • JOHN

    My names moore james, I am from uk am here to give my testimony about a doctor who help me in my life. I was infected with HIV virus in the year of 2010,i went to many hospitals, churches for cure but there was no solution out, so I was thinking how can I get a solution out so that i cannot loose my life, I lost everything I have my husband run away from me and also took my children along because of my sickness. One day I was in the river side thinking the next step to take if it is to jump into the river so that I can loose my life totally or just think where I can go to get solution. so a lady walk to me telling me why am I so sad and i open up all to him telling her my stories, she told me that she can help me out that’s the reason she normally come here to help people so that they can be cured because she was into this problem before, she introduce me to a doctor how cast spells for people and gave me he number and email so i called him and also email him.so i gather all my faiths and put in all interest to contact him through his Email address at greatagusolutionhome@gmail.com , so after i have mailed him of helping get my disease cured, i respond to me fast as possible that i should not be afraid, that he is a truthful and powerful doctor which i firstly claimed him to be. So after all set has been done, he promise me that i will be healed but on a condition that i provide him some items and obeyed all his oracle said. I did all by accepting his oracle fact and only to see that the following week Great AGU mail me on my mail box that my work is successfully done with his powers, i was first shocked and later arise to be the happiest woman on earth after i have concluded my final test on the hospital by my doctor that i am now HIV- Negative. My papers for check are with me and now i am happy and glad for his miraculous help and power.With these i must to everyone who might seek for any help, either for HIV cure or much more to contact him now at these following email now,Email: greatagusolutionhome@gmail.com ” sir thank you so much for your immediate cure of my disease, i must say for curing my disease, i owe you in return. Thanks and be blessed sir. or you can call him via his cell phone number on +23490313009215
    1) If you want your ex back.
    (2) if you always have bad dreams.
    (3) You want to be promoted in your office.
    (4) You want women/men to run after you.
    (5) If you want a child.
    (6) You want to be rich.
    (7) You want to tie your husband/wife to be
    yours forever.
    (8) If you need financial assistance.
    (9) Herbal care
    CONTACT DR.AGU IMMEDIATELY
    Email…greatdraguspellhome@gmail.com

  • perez sandra

    How can I explain this to the world that
    there is a man who can cure HIV/aids I
    was HIV over since 7year I have being
    into HIV drug I can’t anymore I decide
    to look for help then I found this
    woman post write about this great man
    DR.ezomo telling people about him that
    this man have cured to HIV I don’t
    believe that because all I have in mind
    is HIV had no cure, thank god for my
    life today am HIV negative through the
    power of DR.ezomo I contacted this
    man for help because who write about
    him drop an email of the man I pick the
    email and emailed him for the cure this
    man told me what to do about the cure
    well am from uk this man cast a curing
    spell on me and he told me that he will
    call me after the cure is done truly he
    did I was cured for 45mins spell what a
    wonderful man this DR.ezomo if you
    need his cured just email him now at
    drezomospellhome@gmail.com or
    contact me at
    perezsandra491@gmail.com

  • perez sandra

    How can I explain this to the world that
    there is a man who can cure HIV/aids I
    was HIV over since 7year I have being
    into HIV drug I can’t anymore I decide
    to look for help then I found this
    woman post write about this great man
    DR.ezomo telling people about him that
    this man have cured to HIV I don’t
    believe that because all I have in mind
    is HIV had no cure, thank god for my
    life today am HIV negative through the
    power of DR.ezomo I contacted this
    man for help because who write about
    him drop an email of the man I pick the
    email and emailed him for the cure this
    man told me what to do about the cure
    well am from uk this man cast a curing
    spell on me and he told me that he will
    call me after the cure is done truly he
    did I was cured for 45mins spell what a
    wonderful man this DR.ezomo if you
    need his cured just email him now at.
    drezomospellhome@gmail.com or
    contact me at
    perezsandra491@gmail.com

  • mr bennad

    I am out here to testify about the good work Dr ekpen has done in my life with his healing spell. I have be suffering from HIV diseases for the past 2yeares now before I came across Dr ekpenr who healed me with his powerful healing spell. I never believe that Dr ekpen could ever get my HIV-AIDS cured with his healing spell, i have tried almost everything but i couldn’t find any solution to my disease, despite all these happening to me, i always spend a lot to buy a HIV drugs from hospital and taking some several medications but no relieve, until one day i was just browsing on the internet when i come across a great post of a lady who was tstifying about how she get cured of her HIV disease with the help of these great powerful healing spell caster called Dr ekpen. So i have to contact him, and he ask me some few questions and he said a thing i will never forget that anyone who contacted him is always getting his or her healing in just 3 days after doing all he ask from me, so i was happy all the time i heard that from him, so i did all things only to see that at the very day which he said i will be healed,I regain all the strength that has left me before back and i becomes very strong and healthy,this disease almost end my life, so i went to the hospital to give the final test to the disease and the doctor said i am HIV negative, i am very happy and grateful to Dr ekpen about the healing he have given to me with his healing spell. You can also email him for any kind of help via email drekpenspelltemple@gmail.com. or call his mobile number +447031937616. thank you once again Dr ekpen.

  • Anita rome

    Dr alabokun thank you for the time you make to saved my life i have suffered a lot to get health out from this diseases HIV aids, been in my body for years i take a lot of different drugs and herbs no one work. but just a try of your herbs for few weeks i am now free from this disease i really appreciate God will continuously bless you i will always remember you and testify for your good. pleas i want yu`all to know there is a cure on HIV aids so that you will also be free out from it. is my propose of showing this mail.
    dralabokun@hotmail.com give him a try you will also testify good about him..

  • samson234

    Hello” thank God for the wonderful healing spell power which atakuma Oracle
    render to my life which oracle support, i was been diagnosed with
    HIV-AIDS over 7years now which has lead me to unemployment and loosing
    my relationship with my fiance after he heard that i am suffering from
    the VIRUS, i tried begging him to allow me stays with him, but he still
    insist on letting me out of his home, until a friend of mine on Facebook
    from SOUTH AFRICA told me more about atakuma Oracle the great healer, that he
    is going to help restore and healed my diseased with his powerful
    healing spell, she send me of atakuma Oracle email address and i quickly
    contacted him, and he replied to after 30mins of my message that my
    disease is a little and minor disease, that he will solved the disease
    immediately only if i can accept all he requested from, i told him yes,
    because truly i know that ” HIV-AIDS IS A WICKED AND DEADLY DISEASE I
    EVER KNOWS “. so i did all he want from me and surprisingly on Friday
    last week atakuma Oracle called me that my problems is solved that i should
    hurry up to the hospital for a checkup, which i truly really did, i
    confirm from my doctor that i am now NEGATIVE AND NOT LONG , I jump up
    and was crying heavily because truly the disease drive alot of things
    away from my life, my friends, my cousin, my finance and relatives, but
    now since i was confirm NEGATIVE- my lost friends and finance has been
    back to me begging for forgiveness, i have forgiven them and now we are
    now best of friend. again i will say to atakuma Oracle that he is blessed and
    may the almighty God which i serve raise him and his family to the
    higher level in life. Thank and god bless. Please email atakuma Oracle for
    healing and solution now at atakumaoracel@gmail.com or call him now on +2347064693371

  • phillip goldmoore

    I Am Mrs vera, i live in Texas (USA).
    [READ MY STORY. ON HOW I GOT MY AIDS CURED].
    Truthfully, i was tested HIV + positive last 3years. I keep on managing the drugs i usually purchase from the health care agency to keep me healthy and strenghtful, i tried all i can too make this disease leave me alone, but unfortunately, it keep on eating up my life, this is what i caused myself, for allowing my fiance make sex to me unsecurely without protection, although i never knew he is HIV positive. So last few 4days i came in contact with a lively article on the internet on how this Powerful Herbal Healer get her well and healed. So as a patient i knew this will took my life 1 day, and i need to live with other friends and relatives too. So i copied out the Dr agbadil the traditional healer’s email id: dragbadilaguspelltemple@gmail.com, and I mailed him immediately, in a little while he mail me back that i was welcome to his temple home wereby all what i seek for are granted. I was please at that time. And i continue with him, he took some few details from me and told me that he shall get back to me as soon as he is through with my work. I was very happy as heard that from him. So Yesterday, as i was just coming from my friends house, Dr agbadi called me to go for checkup in the hospital and see his marvelous work that it is now HIV negative, i was very glad to hear that from him, so i quickly rush down to the nearest hospital to found out, only to hear from my hospital doctor called Browning Lewis that i am now HIV NEGATIVE. I jump up at him with the test note, he ask me how does it happen and i recide to him all i went through with Dr agbadil. I am now glad, so i am a gentle type of person that need to share this testimonies to everyone who seek for healings, because once you get calm and quiet, so the disease get to finish your life off. So i will advice you contact him today for your healing at the above details: Email ID: dragbadilaguspelltemple@gmail.com CONTACT HIM NOW TO SAVE YOUR LIFE:dragbadilaguspelltemple@gmail.com AS HE IS SO POWERFUL AND HELPFUL TO ALL THAT HAVE THIS SICKNESS… or visit his website at http://dr-agbadi-home-of-solution.webs.com/

  • phillip goldmoore

    I am Nathalie Beniot from Germany, I can’t stop thanking DR AGBADI for this Great thing that he has just done in my life, I am so so greatful to him, i was suffering from HIV seizures and kidney failure when i contacted DR AGBADI after reading the wonderful testimony that people has been sharing about him, when i contacted him, he assure me that he will cure me with his herbal medicine and now he really did so, and i am now completely cured from my HIV seizures and kidney failure. What will i say rather than thanking him for rescue my life, Anybody looking this wonderful testimony, should please contact DR AGBADI if you have any problem, here is his email: dragbadilaguspelltemple@gmail.com . His herbal medicine is fast in active and powerful once i used it, in three days, i was cured again.

  • phillip goldmoore

    DR AGBADI is the only Dr who could ever get my HIV-AIDS cured with his healing spell, i have tried almost everything but i couldn’t find any solution on my disease, despite all these happening to me, i always spend alot to buy a HIV drugs from hospital and taking some several medications but no relieve, until one day i was just browsing on the internet when i come across a great post of !Michelle! who truly said that she was been diagnose with HIV and was healed that very week through the help of these great powerful healing spell doctor, sometime i really wonder why people called him Dr AGBADI, i never knew it was all because of the great and perfect work that he has been doing that is causing all this. so i quickly contacted him, and he ask me some few questions and he said a thing i will never forget that anyone who contacted him is ! always getting his or her healing in just 6 hours after doing all he ask you, so i was amazed all the time i heard that from him, so i did all things only to see that at the very day which he said i will be healed, all the strength that has left me before rush back and i becomes very strong and healthy, this disease almost kills my life all because of me, so i will to hospital to give the final test to the disease and the doctor said i am HIV negative, i am very amazed and happy about the healing DR AGBADI gave to me from the ancient part of Africa, you can email him now for your own healing too at: Dragbadilaguspelltemple@gmail.com

  • phillip goldmoore

    hello everyone,
    i don’t just know the reason why some people is finding it difficult to believe that there is a cure for HIV, i have been HIV+ since last three years with my girlfriend but today i am happy that i am HIV_ with herbal medicine of Dr AGBADI the great healer,i was browsing the internet searching for help when i came across a testimony shared by someone on how Dr AGBADI cure his HIV i was so much in need of getting his treatment but after all Dr AGBADI brought a smile to my face with his herbal medicine. i am so much happy today that we have someone like this great healer out there, so my people out there kindly contact this great heal;er on his email address: Dragbadilaguspelltemple@gmail.com please sir keep your good work cause there are people out there who is in need of your healing medicine.once more contact him now: Dragbadilaguspelltemple@gmail.com

  • phillip goldmoore

    Hello let me share this testimony to the world to hear about him too
    this man really exit I was hiv positive over 9year I have being in
    medication and I try to look for cure to my problem and I go through
    internet doctor and I found a tradition doctor named DR.AGBADI I
    contacted him for help he give me all his laws and rule that if I get
    cured I should write about him and that is what am doing now, this man
    ask for some information about me, which I give him this man cure me
    from HIV what a great man thank for your help when he get the
    information he told me that he is about to work on it 20 to 30 minute
    this man email me and told me what to do for the curing which I did
    after all the things needed for the cure is provide the man call me in
    45mins later and tell me to go for test what a great day to me I was
    negative thanks dr.AGBADI you can contact him now at Dragbadilaguspelltemple@gmail.com

  • Dona Smith

    hello everyone,
    i don’t just know the reason why some people is finding it difficult to believe that there is a cure for HIV, i have been HIV+ since last three years with my girlfriend but today i am happy that i am HIV negative with herbal medicine of Dr uroko the great healer,i was browsing the internet searching for help when i came across a testimony shared by someone on how Dr uroko cure his HIV i was so much in need of getting his treatment but after all Dr uroko brought a smile to my face with his herbal medicine. i am so much happy today because am hiv negative today,he can also provide help for everyone,

    Do you want your ex back,

    Are you looking for promotion,

    Are you looking for a job,

    Do you have single cell amenia,

    Do you have diabeties,or any problems or any kind of sickness,

    Are you finding it dificult to get to bear a child,

    This doctor is the answer that we have all be waiting for, you can contact him through his private email@ drurokospellcaster@gmail.com

  • Dona Smith

    My girlfriend dumped me a week ago after I accused her of seeing someone else and insulting her. I want her back in my life but he refuse to have any contact with me. I was so confuse and don’t know what to do, so I reach to the internet for help and I saw a testimony of how a spell caster help them to get their ex back so I contact the spell caster and explain my problem to him and he cast a spell for me and assure me of 2days that my ex will return to me and to my greatest surprise the second day my ex came knocking on my door and beg for forgiveness. I am so happy that my love is back again and not only that, we are about to get married. Once again thank you DR UROKO.You are truly talented and gifted. Email: DRUROKOSPELLCASTER@GMAIL.COM is the only answer. He can be of great help and I will not stop publishing him because he is a wonderful man…..
    he can solve the following……
    (1) If you want your ex back.
    (2) if you always have bad dreams.
    (3) You want to be promoted in your office.
    (4) You want women/men to run after you.
    (5) If you want a child.
    (6) You want to be rich.
    (7) You want to tie your husband/wife to be
    yours forever.
    (8) If you need financial assistance.
    (9) Herbal care
    (10) If you can be able to satisfy your wife
    sex desire due
    to low erraction.

  • Dona Smith

    Hello my Name is
    charles morgan I want to thank dr uroko for help me since 20013 I have bin having hiv it was confirm by my doctor that I’m hiv positive. So one day as I was browsing through the internet I saw a testimony how this grate man Dr uroko. And I contact him and he told me not to worry that he will help me that I should give him time to prepare the herbal medicine after two days he send it to me, after i take in 7days he call Me to go for test up and I go for the test and I was now hiv negative I’m very happy now that I’m hiv negative,, thank you dr uroko for helping me,if you need help email he drurokospellcaster@gmail.com

  • Dona Smith

    I am
    charles morgan USA, i navel believe that hiv cure is real on till i got in contact with Dr. dr uroko, my HIV stated eight years ago, i was even waiting for death because all my money went out for drug, which keep me till today, one day i saw in the interment that HIV cure is out i then email Dr uroko and he prepare the herb for me which i took, after taking it he told me to go to the hospital which i did, could you believe that i was confirm HIV negative after the test, and i went to another hospital and it was also negative. if you have this problem and you want to be free from it please contact this doctor with this email address drurokospellcaster@gmail.com , he is the best HIV cure you will find in the whole world. thank you Dr uroko am free now.,

  • Wagner M James
  • Wagner M James

    Most herbalist you contact in the Internet are scam you have to be careful, they scammed me
    and take huge of money from me ruffly 3000usd. nothing in my saved.
    I never get any herpes herbs from them. I’m happy today that I am cured with the
    help of Dr OSBIT the only herbalist that was truthfully to me and have the
    cure for herpes Dr OSBIT don’t charge me much before my herpes was cured, Email him on
    osbitherbalome@hotmail.com or call +2348058465905 thank you so much i will always testify for you

  • Nelly johnson

    hello